This SI aims at better understand the elderly through the theory of aging and by considering different areas of research, such as gerontology, economic, entrepreneurship, HRM and psycho-sociology. The aging process and how people experienced it, is one of the main topics of medical science, as it can have a direct effect on people's life expectancy. The importance of aging process in maintaining life satisfaction and well-being during the lifespan made it a subject of interest for individuals and different actors such as companies and public services. According to Austad (1997), the aging process refers to “the different developments and changes in the body's functions over time, the losses, the gains, and the perceptions resulting from these changes”. The mentioned process differs from one individual to another and is associated with both objective (physical degradation, the decline in perceptual and memory performance) and subjective (a person perception of his own aging) factors (Fontaine, 1999). Hence, in the senior segmentation, considering objective variables such as age or income is as important as considering subjective variables such as the perceived aging experience (Guiot, 2006).
Changes and their consequences on behaviors
As individuals become older, they face social, physical and cognitive difficulties that may affect their attitudes and behaviors (Greco, 1987, Schewe, 1989, Ostroff, 1989). Social changes in the elderly, like becoming grandparents, losing some social roles and trying to find the new ones, are particularly important as older individuals have to adapt them (Tamaro-Hans, 1999). Especially, retirement stands as one of the most significant events in one’s life and is mainly associated with the loss of social roles that individuals have to cope with.
Physical disorders which include the loss of sensorial abilities (Vanhamme, 2001) are also some other consequences of becoming old. Cognitive disorders cause decreasing intellectual capabilities (Mishara and Riedel, 1985; De Ladoucette, 1997), concentration or attention problems (Van der Linden, 1994; Boujon, 1995) as well as memorizing and retrieval information problems (Mishara and Riedel, 1985). These changes may have a great impact on information processing, such as the way the older individuals process any environmental stimulus (Moschis, 1994).
One of the major concerns caused by an aging population is the question of whether the working population will be productive enough to maintain economic growth as well as the serious impacts on workplaces. While striving to maintain a skilled and productive workforce, organizations and governments must face the challenges posed by an ageing generation, find diversified and innovative solutions (Wisse et al., 2015). Developing an active ageing strategy requires considering employers’ attitudes regarding older people, individuals’ perceptions of their end of career (Rabl & del Carmen Triana, 2014) and efforts made by governments in favour of active ageing (Saba, 2014). The end-of-career trajectories of both men and women remain unpredictable, often uncertain and deserve attention.
Entrepreneurship literature suggests that the more aged people are, the less motivated they are in setting up a new business. Seniors have less appetite to engage in entrepreneurial activities (Curran and Blackburn, 2001; Hart et al., 2004; Levesque and Minniti, 2006) since the cost of the time factor increases with age and thus discourage seniors’ venture for entrepreneurship (Kautonen, Tornikoski and Kibler, 2011).
Moreover, whether consciously or unconsciously, aging is mainly associated with the perspective of death (Routledge and Arndt, 2005). As the people grow older, the time is shrinking for them and is perceived as being limited. This aspect of the aging experience may lead to different motivations and behaviors which the older individuals imply in the rest of their life.
Aging theories and topics of interest
Several theories have been developed by the psychology and gerontology to explain the motivations and behaviors of elderly. The “psychosocial development” theory suggests how death consciousness in the older individuals is associated with the acceptance of one’s destiny (Erikson, 1963). The “socio-emotional selectivity” (TSS) theory suggests time perception influences goals and motivations (Carstensen, Fung and Charles, 2003). The “Selection, optimization, compensation” (SOC) theory introduces three regulation strategies which contribute in successful aging (Baltes and Freund, 2003).
Some other discussed theories are the “theory of disengagement”, the “theory of activity”, the “theory of socialization” (Smith and Moschis, 1984) as well as “the theory of continuity” (Atchley, 1989). As it is suggested by these theories, the older individuals stand as an interesting target for the researcher as they use specific resources and strategies that enable them to maintain well-being and meaning in one’s life. In this perspective, entrepreneurship can be seen as a means to overcome social, cognitive and physical changes.
This SI aims at better understand the elderly through the theory of aging by considering different areas of research, such as entrepreneurship, gerontology and psycho-sociology…etc.
We aim to propose with this SI a meaningful value to researchers on aging, practitioners and policy-makers.
Has there ever been greater interest in business creation? From policymakers to business communities, up to the general public person, business creation is increasingly at the top of mind. For example, business creation occupies an increasingly important place in the educational ecosystem, in particular in the higher education sector. Universities and Business Schools provide students with numerous and varied entrepreneurship courses and other promotion actions. This movement is accompanied by a greater investment in business creation supporting structures like incubators and accelerators. In France, student entrepreneurship is considered of as a national priority, particularly through the Student Plan for Innovation, Transfer and Entrepreneurship (PÉPITE) supported by French government. Its mission is to encourage students willing to create their own business within higher education institutions by granting them the National Student Entrepreneur Status (SNEE). The plan aims to facilitate and encourage the experience of business start-ups and takeovers among students and young graduates.
Despite all this, entrepreneurship in modern economies is actually shrinking; entrepreneurial density has been in a long-term decline since the late 1970’s in most Western countries, even the USA. Business dynamism shows a similar decline.
Interest and intent are rising but action is not? This call for papers (CFP) directly addresses this conundrum with a particular focus on the potential role of entrepreneurial education and training. We invite scholars and educators to help us understand how intent becomes action and how educators and policymakers can address that.
Student entrepreneurship is receiving increasing attention in the world of practitioners and research (Marchand and Hermens, 2015). The use of psycho-cognitive models in particular enables the exploration of student entrepreneurial experience’s determinants, bringing a significant change in their thinking patterns (Maalaoui et al., 2018a). Research and entrepreneurial pedagogy are closely linked (Maalaoui et al., 2018b), one feeding another in an iterative process. For this reason, teachers and researchers have examined the issue of students’ entrepreneurial intentions (Boissin et al., 2009, Boissin et al., 2017).
Intention models are predictive (Krueger, 2003). They aim at understanding individual but also collective (Shepherd and Krueger, 2002) attitudes towards business creation. Researches on entrepreneurial intentions are numerous (Krueger and Carsrud, 1993; Krueger et al., 2000; Krueger, 2017, Nabi et al., 2017; Maalaoui and Germon, 2017). They are mainly based on Ajzen’ s theory of planned behaviour (1991) along with Shapero and Sokol’s entrepreneurial event theory (1982).
While these models have proven to be extremely robust in capturing students’ representations that underpin their intention to create business, recent works call for a deeper understanding of its implementation into actual behaviour (Fayolle and Linan, 2014). Recent works have addressed the now famous intention-action gap, through notions such as implementation intention (Krueger, 2017, Van Gelderen et al., 2018), motivation (Carsrud and Brännback, 2011) or commitment (Adam and Fayolle, 2015). In a forthcoming article published in International Small Business Journal (ISBJ) (Tornikoski and Maalaoui, 2019), Icek Ajzen argues that “intentions and behaviours are based on a cognitive and affective foundation that consists of three sets of beliefs readily accessible in memory at the time of the behaviour […] the ability to act on an intention depends on the degree of control over performance of the behavior. Behavioral control can be increased by providing people with the required resources and by removing barriers”. However, so far, little empirical research integrates such constructs to extend the original model of intention.
Starting a business is a long and complex process, involving multiple activities (Carter et al., 1996, Gartner 1985, Reynolds and White, 1997) and a considerable amount of effort and time. It requires the entrepreneur to be fully engaged and focused on pursuing his or her goals. For a student at the end of his or her studies or a recent graduate, entrepreneurial experience can constitute a first brick in the construction of a professional career, but also a learning process, in continuity with the academic training they have received. Therefore, it is crucial to understand what leads these student-entrepreneurs to persevere in their efforts and to actually create their business. Studying how this subpopulation of nascent entrepreneurs translate their entrepreneurial intention into concrete action can thus help us better understand the entrepreneurial process.
The purpose of this special issue is to explore the gap between intention and action among students. The idea is to understand the students’ propensity to undertake and the singularity of these behaviours. We would like, in particular, to shed a new light on the models of cognitive psychology that would explain their enactment. The field of investigation of this file thus covers the study of student entrepreneurship in all its dimensions, but also the psychological and cognitive determinants of the latter.
This non-exhaustive list can be enriched with contributions addressing the topic through other disciplines.
The articles must comply with the requirements of the Entrepreneurship Journal. The publication of the thematic issue “Student Entrepreneurship: from intention to action” is planned for the 3rd quarter of 2020. The article proposals are to be sent to: Jean-Pierre Boissin: email@example.com and Adnane Maalaoui: firstname.lastname@example.org
Journal of Knowledge Management Special Section
Over the past 20 years, social entrepreneurship has been considered as an emergent field of research and has intended to erase some misconceptions about business dominance in terms of enterprise creation. Several researchers have attempted to understand and define social entrepreneurship (Hoogendoorn, 2016; Mair and Marti, 2006; Rawhouser et al., 2017).
Indeed, several definitions has been suggested. For instance, Alford et al. (2004) as well as Rey-Martí et Al., (2016) defined social entrepreneurship as “a process that creates innovative solutions to immediate social problems and mobilizes the ideas, capacities, resources, and social agreements required for this sustainable social transformation”. Social entrepreneurship has also been defined as an innovative process of resource combination in order to address social needs and to catalyze social change (Desa and Basu, 2013).
Alford et al., (2004), Rey-Martí et al. (2016) focused on two key concepts in the social entrepreneurship context namely: resource and knowledge. In fact, these notions have not been well developed in previous studies. Bacq and Eddleston (2017) have addressed the Resource Based View in the social entrepreneurship context. The two concepts of knowledge and capabilities (Paarup Nielsen, 2006; Spanos and Prastacos, 2004; Zheng et al., 2011) have been widely emphasized in the RBV approach (Uit Beijerse, 1999).
Zahra and Wright (2016) claimed that crucial knowledge is fundamental to social enterprise creation process. They also argued that crucial knowledge is even important for social enterprise performance. Thus, social entrepreneurs’ ability to create, develop and transform knowledge on key resources is considered as a strategic challenge.
Zahra et al. (2014) emphasized that: “social ventures also differ from both for-profits and not-for-profits by their deliberate investments in social impact and social system change capabilities. Social impact capabilities are the bundle of knowledge, skills, and routines necessary for achieving measurable social impact on a target client”. This point has led scholars to wonder about the impact of knowledge on stakeholders and on social innovation (McMullen and Bergman, 2017).
Based on recent research on social entrepreneurship (Dacin et al., 2011; Felìcio et al., 2013), Muñoz and Kibler (2016: 1314) “stresses the need to advance the knowledge on the institutional complexity that influences how social entrepreneurs think and behave”.
Therefore, in this Special Section on “Knowledge creation in the context of Social entrepreneurship” in JKM, we aim at bringing new insights investigating the relationship between social entrepreneurship and knowledge research. Topics of interests include, but are not limited to:
Abstract submission deadline: March, 20th, 2018 (directly to guest editors)
Publication: expected from November/December 2018
A selection of papers presented at the “Semaine de la FNEGE” May 25th, 2018 to the special session on social entrepreneurship (https://www.management2018.fr/semaine-management-2018), accordingly revised and updated, will be considered for publication into this Special Section. They will undergo, anyway, to the traditional blind review process of the JKM.
The papers submitted for this Special Section (SS) of the Journal of Knowledge Management (JKM) will initially be desk reviewed by a Guest Editor and when found suitable, it will be assigned for rigorous review by a qualified team of academicians. Successful papers in this Special Section should demonstrate strong academic discourse combined with robust methodological approach will be considered during the peer review processes. Needless to say, all works submitted to this SS in JKM need to be original.
- Please visit the Journal of Knowledge Management at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journal/jkm to know more about the journal
- Submissions to the Journal of Knowledge Management are made using ScholarOne Manuscripts, the online submission and peer review system. Registration and access is available through http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jkm
- For detailed author guidelines, please visit
Submitted abstracts should be no longer than 900 words and should include the following sections (when applicable):
- Research question and research objectives
- Theoretical part
- Methodology and research design
- Results and analysis
Please feel free to discuss your manuscript ideas with any of the following guest editors:
Dr. Adnane MAALAOUI
Associate Professor, IPAG
IPAG Business School, Paris, France
Despite the increased interest in recent years regarding social and gender-based entrepreneurship studies, there remains a significant lack of research relating to the topic of entrepreneurship amongst disadvantaged communities. In 2012, The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation featured a Special Issue on ‘Silent Minorities’ (Vol 13,2) but otherwise entrepreneurship literature has remained relatively quiet on this topic. This special issue will discuss disadvantaged entrepreneurship by exploring what is meant by the term and then taking a broad approach towards its understanding as a research field worthy of more attention. The special issue will additionally consider if entrepreneurship supports the social and economic integration of disadvantaged people through their creation of new enterprises. Although the focus is on the positive benefits of entrepreneurship for disadvantaged people, we also acknowledge the undesirable realization that it can often be a necessity for those facing societal marginalisation.